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Data Breach Reports Skyrocket After Implementation of Canada’s Privacy Law
The recent report from the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada showed that data breach reports in Canada skyrocketed after the implementation of the mandatory data breach reporting required under the country’s privacy law.
Mandatory Data Breach Reporting
On November 1, 2018, organizations across Canada became subject to the mandatory data breach reporting under Canada’s federal private sector privacy law, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA). Prior to the mandatory data breach reporting, data breach reporting was done on a voluntary basis.
Organizations subject to PIPEDA are required to report to the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada any data breaches that pose a real risk of significant harm to an individual or individuals. The law also requires that the affected individual or individuals should be notified and records of all data breaches should be kept within the organization.
The Numbers After One Year of Implementation
Last November 1st, one year after the implementation of the mandatory data breach reporting, the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada reported that breach reporting “skyrocket”, increasing six times the volume that the office had received during the same period one year earlier. According to the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada, from November 1, 2018 to October 31, 2019, a total of 680 breaches were reported to the office, affecting over 28 million Canadians.
The Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada said that while some of those reports involved well-known corporate names, a significant volume came from small and medium-sized businesses.
Fifty-eight percent or 397 of the reported breaches, which made up the majority of reported breaches, involved unauthorized access, the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada said. Key factors behind breaches resulting from unauthorized access were social engineering hacks and malicious insiders.
According to the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada, more than one in five or 147 data breaches reported over the past year involved accidental disclosure, which includes sending critical information to the wrong person as a result of incorrect email or postal address or accidental exposure.
The Office said roughly one in four of the reported breaches involved social engineering attacks such as phishing and impersonation. In phishing attacks, attackers send malicious emails containing malicious links or attachments. Once this malicious link or attachment is clicked, it installs malicious software (malware) on the email receiver’s computer.
In impersonation, the tactic used in business email compromise (BEC) scams, fraudsters convince employees at an organization that they are someone. In a BEC scam, a fraudster impersonates via a spoofed email, for instance, a CEO and convinces an employee of an organization to release a certain amount to a bank account controlled by the fraudster.
According to the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada, it observed a growing impersonation scam in the telecommunications industry. In the tactic known as SIM swap, an impersonator convinces a customer service representative of a telecommunication company into believing that he or she is an account holder. Successfully convincing a customer service representative, enables the impersonator to make changes to the account, including the change of a phone number to be assigned to a new SIM card controlled by the impersonator, allowing the impersonator to access other accounts.
In related information, the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) recently issued an alert to its partner organizations warning them about SIM swap. According to the FBI, between 2018 and 2019, SIM swap is the most common tactic used by malicious actors in bypassing the two-factor authentication (2FA), which resulted in draining the bank accounts of the victims and passwords and PINs changed.
Notable Reported Breaches
The reported breaches at the financial cooperative Desjardins and financial holding company Capital One are two of the notable breaches over the past year as these two breaches affected millions of Canadians. The Desjardins data breach, which was initially announced in June 2019, affected 4.2 million Canadians; while the Capital One data breach, which was initially announced in July 2019, affected 6 million Canadians.
Desjardins attributed the data breach to one suspect, a former employee; while Capital One attributed the data breach to a “specific configuration vulnerability” in its public cloud infrastructure – a vulnerability that was exploited by one suspect, a former employee of the public cloud infrastructure, the Amazon Web Services (AWS).
Amazon, for its part, said in a statement, “AWS was not compromised in any way and functioned as designed.” The company added that the Capital One data breach, which also affected 100 million individuals in the United States, wasn’t a result of a vulnerability in the cloud server itself, but by a misconfiguration of firewall settings on a web application, managed on the cloud server by Capital One.
Preventive and Mitigating Measures Against Data Breaches
The Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada offers the following cyber security measures in order to prevent or mitigate the effects of a data breach:
Steve E. Driz, I.S.P., ITCP